Human kidney γ-glutamyl transpeptidase: Catalytic properties, subunit structure, and localization of the γ-glutamyl binding site on the light subunit
Human kidney gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase has been purified by a procedure involving Lubrol extraction, acetone precipitation, treatment with bromelain, and column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-150. The final preparation is a glycoprotein (molecular weight of approximately 84,000) composed of two nonidentical glycopeptides (molecular weights of 62,000 and 22,000). The isozymic forms, separable by isoelectric focusing, have different contents of sialic acid. The utilization of L-glutamine (which is both a gamma-glutamyl donor and acceptor) is stimulated about 3-fold by maleate in contrast to 10-fold stimulation of glutamine utilization by the rat kidney enzyme. The gamma-glutamyl analogs, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) and L-azaserine inactivate the human kidney enzyme with respect to its transpeptidase and hydrolase activities. Inactivation is prevented by gamma-glutamyl substrates (but not by acceptor substrates) and is accelerated by maleate. [14C]DON reacts covalently and stoichiometrically at the gamma-glutamyl site, which was localized to the light subunit of the enzyme. The light subunit of human transpeptidase closely resembles that of rat kidney enzyme in having the gamma-glutamyl binding site, and similar molecular weight and amino acid composition. The heavy subunits of the two enzymes are markedly different in both molecular weight and amino acid content; this may account for differences observed in acceptor amino acid specificity and in the magnitude of the maleate effect.